Gut microbial communities confer protection against natural pathogens in important pollinators from the genera Bombus and Apis. In commercial species B. terrestris and B. impatiens, the microbiota increases their resistance to the common and virulent trypanosomatid parasite Crithidia bombi. However, the mechanisms by which gut microorganisms protect the host are still unknown. Here, we test two hypotheses: microbiota protect the host 1) through stimulation of its immune response or protection of the gut epithelium and 2) by competing for resources with the parasite inside the gut. To test them, we reduced the microbiota of workers and fed part of them with microbiota supplements. We exposed them to an infectious dose of C. bombi and characterised gene expression and gut microbiota composition. We examined the expression of three antimicrobial peptide (AMP) genes and Mucin-5AC, a gene with a putative role in gut epithelium protection, using qPCR. Although a protective effect against C. bombi was observed in bumblebees with supplemented microbiota, we did not observe an effect of the microbiota on gene expression that could explain alone the protective effect observed. On the other hand, we found an increased relative abundance of Lactobacillus bacteria within the gut of infected workers and a negative correlation of this genus with Gilliamella and Snodgrassella genera. Therefore, our results point to a displacement of bumblebee endosymbionts by C. bombi that might be caused by competition for space and nutrients between the parasite and the microbiota within the gut.