Background: Many different internal factors have been proven to influence urine production such as age, weight, and quality of sleep. External factors such as consumption of caffeine and fluid consumption have been shown to have an impact on urine production. Aim: To investigate the impact of movement, physical activity, and position on urine production. Methods: This prospective observational study was executed at Ghent University Hospital, Belgium. Study participation was open for anyone visiting the hospital. Participants collected 1 basic and 2 extended 24-hour urine collections and filled in questionnaires concerning their general health and physical activity. Urinary levels of osmolality, sodium, and creatinine were determined. Data on movement, physical activity and position was described. Results: An increase in body movement leads to a significant increase in diuresis during daytime, night-time, and 24 hours (p=0,002, p= <0,001, and p=<0,001, respectively). An increase in body movement leads to a significant decrease in osmolality during night-time and 24 hours (p=0,009, and p=0,004, respectively). However, no significant influence of movement on osmolality was found during daytime (p=0,12). An increase in body movement leads to a significant decrease in creatinine during daytime, night-time, and 24 hours (p=0,001, <0,001, and p=<0,001, respectively). An increase in body movement leads to a significant increase in sodium during daytime (p=0,046) but this was statistically significant during night-time and 24 hours (p=0,32, and p=0,84 respectively). Conclusion: Our study demonstrates a statistically significant association of movement, physical activity, and position with urine production. It would therefore be interesting to explore this association further with the use of new technology to have more accurate data. Here lays a potential role for conservative measurements and lifestyle adaptations in the management of patients with bothersome LUTS and more precisely nocturia.
Background: This study was conducted to determine the frequency and clinical features of patients who were diagnosed incidentally as having diabetes mellitus (DM) in the emergency department. Aim: Our aim was to investigate the frequency of DM in patients whose high blood glucose levels were detected, and to examine the subsequent treatment these patients. Methods: The participants were selected from among patients who had a glucose level of ≥200 mg/dL and admitted to emergency department with symptoms of hyperglycemia in the past 1 year. Age, sex, presence of chronic disease, and the laboratory blood parameter results of the patients were recorded. We divided the patients into three groups as those who had never been admitted to clinics for treatment, those who were admitted and given treatment, and not given treatment. Results: According to their sexes, 73 (52.1%) were male and 67 (47.9%) were female. It was determined that 86 of the 140 patients included in the study were admitted to clinics for treatment. It was determined that no medication was given to 50 of these patients, but treatment was initiated in 36. Patients with glucose level ≥300 mg/dL were found to be receiving more treatment significantly (p=0.031). Conclusions: In this study, diabetic patients whose blood sugar is between 200-300 mg/dL should be sent to the DM related clinic immediately when diagnosed in the emergency department.
Background Lack of definitive cure for COVID-19 and the late introduction of a vaccine were responsible to push the general public to look for a remedy to treat or prevent COVID-19. The objective of this study was to evaluate patterns and factors that affect self-medication practices in Jordan during the pandemic. Methods This was a cross-sectional study using an online questionnaire that was developed, piloted and distributed to the general public via various social media platforms. The questionnaire assessed the type of drugs and treatments used to self -medicate, the reasons behind their self- medication, and the factors affecting their practices. Results A total of 1179 participants (females 46.4%) with a mean age of 32 (SD=12.5) completed the questionnaire. The overall prevalence of the use of at least one product to treat or prevent COVID-19 was 80.4 %. The most commonly used products to self-medicate were vitamin C (57.6%), followed by paracetamol (51.9%), zinc (44.8%) and vitamin D (32.5%). Female gender (odds ratio [OR]) = 1.603, working in the medical field (OR =1.697), and history of COVID-19 infection (OR =2.026) were variables associated with self-medication. The most common sources of participants’ information about drugs to prevent or treat COVID-19 were newspapers (n=519, 44.0%), followed by pharmacists (43.4%), friends (33.8%) and internet searching such as Google (30.7%). Conclusion This study identified the main drugs and supplements used during COVID-19 and the motives behind their use. It also identified the most influential source of information on the public during the pandemic. Self-medication can lead to worsening of the patient’s health and delay seeking medical advice from healthcare professionals. Efforts should be done to help mitigate risks of self-medications by active involvement of pharmacists and other members of healthcare team to refute false claims about drug, especially in the media.
Background: Various variants of the covid-19 have started to attract attention recently. The clinical course of these variants and possible predictive parameters are being investigated. This study aimed to examine the relationship between thiol levels, which are indicators of oxidative stress, and variant covid-19 types. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, patients with a diagnosis of classic covid-19 and patients with a diagnosis of variant covid-19 with mild and moderate symptoms followed in the clinical observatory of Ankara city hospital were included in the study group. The patients were divided into two groups according to the covid-19 type as variant and classic covid-19, and a healthy control group is added for comparison. A complete blood count and thiol analysis are performed from the venous blood samples. Obtained results were compared between groups, and the ROC analysis is performed. Results: Thiol levels were significantly lower in patients with a diagnosis of Covid-19 compared to the control group. In terms of WBC, lymphocyte, neutrophil, NLR, ferritin and thiol parameters, patients with variant covid-19 differed significantly from patients with a classic covid-19 diagnosis. Thiol levels’ cut-off values to distinguish between variant covid-19 patients and control group from classical covid-19 patients were almost identical (423 and 422 µmol/L, respectively). Conclusions: It seems possible to use thiol as a sensitive, specific and cost-effective marker to suspect variant covid-19 cases. Since this study is probably the first example in this subject, it would form a basis for further studies. Keywords: Covid-19, SARS-CoV-2, variant covid-19, thiol, oxidative stress.
Aims: In this study, we aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of intravenous ibuprofen by using the C-reactive protein level and thiol/disulfide homeostasis as the oxidative stress marker. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 70 patients aged between 30and65 who were scheduled for elective laparoscopic hysterectomy. The patients were divided into two groups to receive either preemptive 800mg of intravenous ibuprofen plus 1000 mg of intravenous paracetamol (Group IP) or only 1000 mg of intravenous paracetamol as a control group (Group P).The blood samples for thiol/disulfide homeostasis were collected as follows; before induction of anesthesia (T0),before pneumoperitoneum (T1),following post-deflation and discontinuation of anesthesia (T2) and postoperative 24th hour (T3).Simultaneous blood samples for C-reactive protein were also collected. The pre and postoperative urea, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels were measured. Results: A total of 69 patients were included in the study. The patient’s characteristics and intraoperative variables were comparable between groups (p>0.05). The number of patients requiring rescue analgesia, the total amount of analgesic used, VAS scores, and postoperative side effects were significantly lower in Group IP (p<0.001).There decrease in native and total thiol levels at T1, T2, T3 measurement points was significant in Group IP (p<0.001). In both groups, the comparison to baseline values demonstrated no significant changes in terms of disulfide level (p>0.05).The simultaneous CRP levels indicated a significant increase at the postoperative 24.hour in both groups (p<0.001). The difference between groups was insignificant (p>0.05). There was a significant increase in urea and creatinine levels in patients of Group IP (p<0.05). Conclusion: The pre-emptive administration of ibuprofen provided an effective pain control after gynecologic laparoscopy. However, ibuprofen changed the thiol/disulfide homeostasis in favor of oxidation and had no beneficial effect in surgically induced oxidative stress.
Aims In older adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D), overtreatment remains prevalent and undertreatment ignored. The main objective is to estimate the prevalence and examine factors associated with potential overtreatment and undertreatment Method Observational study conducted within an administrative database of older adults with T2D who registered in 2018 at the Portuguese Diabetes Association. Participants were categorized either as potentially overtreated (HbA1c≤7.5%), appropriately on target (HbA1c≥7.5–≤9%), or potentially undertreated (HbA1c>9%). Results of 444 participants, potential overtreatment, and undertreatment were found in 60.5% and 12.6% of the study population. Taking the patients on target as a comparator, the group of potentially overtreated showed to be more males (61.3% vs.52.2%), less-obese (34.1% vs.39.2), higher cardiovascular diseases (13.7% vs.11%), peripheral vascular diseases (16.7% vs.12.8%), diabetic foot (10% vs.4.5%), and severe kidney disease (5.2% vs.4.5%). Conversely, the potentially undertreated participants were more females (64.2% vs.47.7%), obese (49% vs.39.2%), had more dyslipidemia (69% vs.63.1%), peripheral vascular disease (14.2% vs.12.8%), diabetic foot (8.9% vs.4.5%), and infections (14.2% vs.11.9%). The odds of potential overtreatment were mostly decreased by 59% of females, 73.5% in those with retinopathy, and 86.3% in insulin, 65.4% sulfonylureas, and 66.8% in SGLT2 inhibitors users. Contrariwise, an increase in the odds of potential undertreatment was more than 4.8times higher in insulin, and more than 3.1times higher in sulfonylureas users. Conclusion potential overtreatment and undertreatment in older adults with T2D in routine clinical practice should guide the clinicians to balance the use of newer oral antidiabetic agents considering its safety profile regarding hypoglycemia.
Aims: C-reactive protein (CRP) is commonly used for monitoring Surgical Stress Response (SSR) and detecting post-operative infectious complications. However, high CRP values can be associated to patient-related factors independently from complications. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between visceral obesity (VO) and SSR after laparoscopic colorectal resection. Methods: Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) area was measured at CT images for 357 patients who underwent elective laparoscopic colorectal resection at our institution. Post-operative outcomes and CRP values were compared between VO and non-VO groups, defined according to VAT cut-offs. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted for factors affecting SSR. ROC curves were constructed to assess the most appropriate CRP values for identifying infectious complications in the VO and non-VO populations. Results: In the final cohort, 62.2% of patients were classified as VO. No differences were seen in post-operative outcomes and infectious complications. VO was associated with higher CRP values on post-operative day (POD)1, POD2, POD3, and POD5, considering both the overall cohort and patients without infectious complications. A positive correlation was found between VAT and CRP values on all PODs, and VO independently predicted increased CRP on POD1-3 in patients without infectious complications but not in those who developed complications. ROC curves analysis for POD3 CRP showed comparable accuracy for detection of infectious complications in both groups, though the optimal cut-off value was higher in VO group (154 vs. 136 mg/dl). Conclusions: Although VO is not associated to increased complications after laparoscopic colorectal resection, it independently predicts increased SSR risk. To achieve accurate identification of infectious complications, different cut-off values of POD3 CRP shall be used in VO and non-VO patients.
Introduction Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) frequently associates with increasing multi-morbidity/treatment complexity. Some headway has been made to identify genetic and non-genetic risk factors for T2DM. However longitudinal clinical histories of individuals both before and after diagnosis of T2DM are likely to provide additional insight into both diabetes aetiology/further complex trajectory of multi-morbidity. Methods This study utilised diabetes patients/controls enrolled in the DARE (Diabetes Alliance for Research in England) study where pre- and post-T2DM diagnosis longitudinal data was available for trajectory analysis. Longitudinal data of 281 individuals (T2DM n=237 vs matched non-T2DM controls n=44) were extracted, checked for errors and logical inconsistencies and then subjected to Trajectory Analysis over a period of up to 70 years based on calculations of the proportions of most prominent clinical conditions for each year. Results For individuals who eventually had a diagnosis of T2DM made, a number of clinical phenotypes were seen to increase consistently in the years leading up to diagnosis of T2DM. Of these documented phenotypes, the most striking were diagnosed hypertension (more than in the control group) and asthma. This trajectory over time was much less dramatic in the matched control group. Immediately prior to T2DM diagnosis a greater indication of ischaemic heart disease proportions was observed. Post-T2DM diagnosis, the proportions of T2DM patients exhibiting hypertension and infection continued to climb rapidly before plateauing. Ischaemic heart disease continued to increase in this group as well as retinopathy, impaired renal function and heart failure. Conclusion These observations provide an intriguing and novel insight into the onset and natural progression of T2DM. They suggest an early phase of potentially-related disease activity well before any clinical diagnosis of diabetes is made. Further studies on a larger cohort of DARE patients are underway to explore the utility of establishing predictive risk scores.
Abstract Aim: To investigate the health care utilization and drug consumption of patients with fibromyalgia (FM). Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study using the Clalit Health Care database. Clalit is the largest HMO in Israel, serving more than 4.4 million enrollees. We identified FM patients and age and sex-matched controls. Indicators of healthcare utilization and drug consumption were extracted and analyzed for both groups. Results: The study included 14,296 FM patients and 71,324 controls. The mean age was 56 years, with a female predominance of 92%. The mean number of visits across of all healthcare services (hospitalizations, emergency department visit, general practitioner clinic visits, rheumatology clinic visits and pain clinic visits) and the mean difference (MD) were significantly higher for FM patients compared to controls (MD 0.66, p<0.001; MD 0.23, p<0.001; MD 7.49, p<0.001; MD 0.31, p<0.001; MD 0.13, p<0.001), respectively. Drug use was significantly and consistently higher among FM patients compared to controls; NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) OR 2.56, P<0.001; Opioids OR 4.23, P<0.001; TCA (tricyclic antidepressants) OR 8.21, P<0.001; Gabapentinoids OR 6.31, P<0.001; SSRI (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors) OR 2.07, P<0.001; SNRI (serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor) OR 7.43, P<0.001. Conclusion: Healthcare utilization and drug use are substantially higher among patients with fibromyalgia compared to controls
Aim: To examine the incidence and treatment of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) as well as 30-day and 1-year prognoses of patients in three major regions of Hungary by analysing data from the country’s continuous and mandated infarction registry. Methods and results: The total population of Hungary is currently 9.8 million: 39% live in the eastern region (ER), 31% in the Central region (CR) and 30% in the western region (WR). These regions exhibited significant differences in income and people exposed to poverty. Population over 30 years, the age-standardised incidence of AMI was 177.5 (175.7–179.3) per 100,000 person-year. During hospital treatment, 82.5%–84.6% of patients with ST-elevation (STEMI) and 54.8%–81.8% without ST-elevation (NSTEMI) underwent PCI. The total ischaemic time was shortest in WR:221 minutes. In the STEMI group, the 30-day mortality rates of males were lowest in the WR (p = 0.03). If PCI was performed, mortality rates for both sexes were lowest in the WR (p < 0.01; p = 0.04). The 1-year mortality rate in the male population who received PCI was lowest in the WR. In the NSTEMI group, the 30-day mortality rate exhibited no differences. Regarding 1-year mortality, those who underwent PCI in the WR showed the lowest mortality. Conclusion: The major regions of Hungary exhibited significant differences regarding the prehospital delay, the incidence, treatment and mortality of AMI. Logistic regression analysis confirmed the independent prognostic significance of the region on the 30-day mortality of patients with STEMI (Hazard ratio = 0.88, p = 0.0114).
Background: Many European health institutions have appointed multidisciplinary teams for the general management of vascular access to help improve efficiency, patient safety and reduce costs. Vascular access teams (VATs), or infusion teams, are specifically trained groups of healthcare professionals who assess, place, manage and monitor various outcomes and aspects of vascular access care. Objective: To assess the current landscape of vascular access management as a discipline across Europe. Methods: A Faculty of European VAT leads and experts developed a survey of 20 questions which was disseminated across several European countries. Questions focused on respondent and institution profile, vascular access device selection and placement, monitoring and reporting of complications, and access to training and education. The 1449 respondents included physicians, nurses, anaesthetists, radiologists and surgeons from public and private institutions ranging in size. Results: Availability of dedicated VATs vary by country, institution size, and institution type. Institutions with a VAT are more likely to utilise a tool (e.g., algorithm or guideline) to determine the appropriate vascular access device (55% vs 38%, p < 0.0002) and to have feedback on systematic monitoring of complications (40% vs 28%, p = 0.015). Respondents from institutions with a VAT are more likely to have received training on vascular access management (79% vs 53%, p < 0.0001) and indicated that the VAT was a source of support when difficulties arise. Conclusion: The survey results highlight some of the potential benefits of implementing a dedicated VAT including use of a broader range of vascular access devices, increased awareness of the presence of vascular access policies, increased likelihood of recent vascular access training, and increased rates of systematic monitoring of associated complications. The study reveals potential areas for further focus in the field of vascular access care, specifically examining the direct impact of vascular access teams.
Aims: The putative protective role of esRAGE for cardiac autonomic function (CAF) remain unclear. To address this question, the present study has assessed the relationship of serum AGEs, sRAGE and esRAGE, and tissue AGEs with CAF in a high-risk population without diabetes. Material and methods: Forty eight subjects of mean age 52.7±11.2years and mean BMI 28.4±6.3kg/m2, divided into 2 groups according to glucose tolerance: 16 with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and 24 with prediabetes, were enrolled. A standard OGTT was performed. The glucose tolerance was defined according to 2006 WHO criteria. Fasting, 120-min glucose, lipids, creatinine and HbA1c were measured. eGFR was calculated (CKD-EPI). Fasting, 120-min insulin (ECLIA method), esRAGE, sRAGE and AGEs (ELISA method) were assessed. HOMA-IR was calculated. Tissue AGEs were assessed by skin autofluorescence (AGE-Reader, DiagnOpticsTM). CAF was evaluated with ANSAR, applying deep breathing, Valsalva and standing. Results: There was a significant decline in CAF in prediabetes in comparison to NGT. Serum and tissue AGEs, sRAGE and esRAGE levels were similar between groups. On the matrix analysis, both sympathetic and parasympathetic activity at baseline and after standing and sympathetic tone during Valsalva were positively related to esRAGE in prediabetes. Multivariate regression analysis showed that esRAGE is an independent contributor to sympathetic, parasympathetic and total autonomic tone in prediabetes accounting for about 28%, 34% and 35% of their variances, respectively. Conclusion: Our results have demonstrated that CAF is decreased in prediabetes. esRAGE, but not sRAGE, is reciprocally related to CAF, probably opposing the negative effects of glycation.
Background: Biochemical recurrence (BCR) can be seen in the early or late period after radical prostatectomy (RP). Various models have been developed to predict BCR. Objective: In our study we evaluated accuracy of four pre-operative models (GP score, PRIX, D’Amico risk classification, CAPRA) in predicting BCR after RP in Turkish patients. Methods: Age, preoperative total prostate specific antigen (PSA) values, clinical stages, total number of cores taken in biopsy, number of positive cores, preoperative biopsy Gleason score (GS), follow-up time and presence of BCR after RP were recorded. BCR was defined as a total PSA value > 0.2 ng / dl twice consecutively after RP. Classifications or scoring was performed according to pre-operative models. The 1, 3 and 5 year (yr) BCR-free rates of the patients were determined for each model. Also the accuracy of four predictive models for predicting 1, 3 and 5-yr BCR was evaluated. Results: For all pre-operative models there was statistically significant difference between risk groups in BCR free rates at 1, 3 and 5-yr after RP (p<0.001). The Harrell’s concordance index for 1-yr BCR predictions was 0,802, 0,831, 0,773 and 0,745 for the GP score, PRIX, CAPRA and D’Amico and respectively. For 3-yr BCR predictions it was 0,798, 0,791, 0,723 and 0,714 for the GP score, PRIX, CAPRA and D’Amico and respectively. Finally, The Harrell’s concordance index for 5-yr BCR predictions was 0,778, 0,771, 0,702 and 0,693 for the GP score, PRIX, CAPRA and D’Amico and respectively. Conclusion: In prediction of BCR, accuracy of GP scoring and PRIX seems slightly higher than CAPRA and D’Amico risk classification. Surely our results should be supported by head to head comparisons with in other larger cohorts
Background: Over the past few years, the benefits of co-administration of omega-3 and antioxidants have been reported in the management of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) complications.This study evaluated the effects of Camelina sativa oil (CSO) supplementation as one of the richest dietary sources of omega-3 fatty acids on glucose homeostasis,inflammation, metabolic endotoxemia, and oxidative stress in NAFLD patients. Methods: In all, 43 subjects with NAFLD were allocated to either an intervention (20g/d CSO) or placebo (20g/d sunflower oil) group receiving a calorie-restricted diet for 12 weeks. Fasting serum levels of glycemic indices, hs-CRP, endotoxin, antioxidant enzymes activity, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), malondialdehyde (MDA), 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α), and uric acid were measured at baseline and post-intervention. Results: CSO intake led to a significant decrease in insulin concentration (-17.49%), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (-20%), high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), (-12.94%), lipopolysaccharide endotoxin (-32.55%), malondialdehyde (MDA) (-18.75%), 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α) (-19.55%) and a significant increase in the levels of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) (31.82%) and superoxide dismutase activity (10.22%) in the CSO group compared with the placebo group. Also, there was no significant difference between the two groups in fasting plasma glucose, quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI), catalase, glutathione peroxidase activity, and uric acid level. In addition, within-group analyses showed a significant reduction of insulin, QUICKI, hs-CRP, and endotoxin levels in the intervention group. Conclusion: These findings indicate that CSO may improve glycemic, inflammation, metabolic endotoxima, oxidative stress status, and mental health in patients with NAFLD.
ABSTRACT Background: Epistaxis is a mostly self-limiting condition common among children and is rarely severe. In this study, it was aimed to evaluate the incidence, demographic characteristics, causes of bleeding and treatment methods of patients who applied to the Pediatric Emergency Department (PED) with epistaxis, and to determine in which cases a laboratory test should be used. Method: Admitted to Gazi University Faculty of Medicine, PED which provides trauma care and is a tertiary hospital, between January 1, 2019 and December 31, 2019, 452 patients aged 0-18 years who presented with epistaxis to any reason or secondary to systemic disease were analyzed retrospectively. Results: The annual incidence was found 1.23%. The median age was 63 months, 258 of the cases (57.1%) were male. It was found that the cases most frequently applied to the hospital in the autumn months (37.6%). Sixty of the patients (13.3%) had a chronic disease and 54 (11.9%) had a history of drug use. Bleeding time was less than 5 minutes in 75.2% and 84.4% of the bleeding was unilateral. Nasal bleeding is local in 73.4%; 4.7% of them developed due to systemic reasons. The most common cause of epistaxis; while they were trauma at the first 10 years of age, they were idiopathic causes after the age of 10 years. In 434 (96%) of the patients, epistaxis spontaneously stopped and there was no need for additional treatment. Conclusion: As a result of this study, it was concluded that laboratory tests should be performed in cases with chronic disease history, bilateral bleeding, active bleeding and nontraumatic epistaxis. The situation that causes epistaxis in the childhood age group should be determined with a good history and physical examination, laboratory tests should not be used in every patient. Key Words: pediatric emergency, epistaxis, laboratory examinations, complete blood count
Background: We aimed to determine the relationship of ischemia-modified albumin (IMA) with diabetic foot ulcers and its predictive value in the Wagner classification. Methods: Our cross-sectional study was conducted in 120 diabetic foot patients and 60 healthy individuals with similar body mass index and age. Patients with a diabetic foot were classified according to the Wagner classification. Biochemical parameters, C-reactive protein (CRP) and IMA levels were measured in all patients and healthy volunteers. Screening performance characteristics of CRP and IMA were calculated according to Wagner classes and the presence of osteomyelitis. Results: CRP and IMA levels in the patient group were significantly higher than the control group. The highest IMA levels were detected in Wagner grade 5. CRP had higher sensitivity and specificity than IMA in the discrimination of other grades, except for grade 4-5 separation. For Wagner grade 4-5 distinction, IMA had 84.6% sensitivity and 94.7% specificity. Conclusion: IMA may play a role in the pathogenesis of diabetic foot ulcers and had a higher predictive value in discrimination of the Wagner grade 4 and 5. In the management of diabetic foot patients, it may be recommended that IMA is evaluated by clinicians.
Objective: Malnutrition is associated with poor clinical outcomes in many diseases. The Controlling Nutritional Status (CONUT) is an objective index used for evaluating nutritional status of hospitalized patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between malnutrition assessed by CONUT score and the prognosis in patients undergoing carotid artery stenting (CAS). Methods: The study included 170 patients who underwent CAS due to symptomatic or asymptomatic severe carotid artery stenosis. Median follow-up period was 50 (interquartile range [IQR], 41-60) months. Patients were divided into two groups according to the CONUT score: (i) normal nutrition (<2) and (ii) malnutrition (≥2). Primary endpoint was accepted as MACE (major adverse cardiac events) including all-cause death and ischemic stroke. Results:The prevalence of MACE was significantly higher in the malnutrition group (p=0.001). Kaplan Meier analysis showed lower survival rates in the malnutrition group (log rank = 9.36, p=0.002; Figure 4). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, age and CONUT score were independent predictors of all-cause death and stroke after adjustment for confounding factors, respectively, (OR: 1.058, 95% CI: 1.013-1.105, p=0.011, OR: 1.318, 95% CI: 1.017-1.881, p=0.039). Conclusion: Higher CONUT scores were associated with adverse outcomes in patients with CAS. Malnutrition assessed by the CONUT score may provide valuable prognostic information in patients with CAS.